LCM-LoRA can speed up any Stable Diffusion models. It can be used with the Stable Diffusion XL model to generate a 1024×1024 image in as few as 4 steps.
In this article, you will learn/get:
- What LCM LoRA is.
- How does LCM LoRA work?
- Using LCM-LoRA in AUTOMATIC1111
- A downloadable ComfyUI LCM-LoRA workflow for speedy SDXL image generation (txt2img)
- A downloadable ComfyUI LCM-LoRA workflow for fast video generation (AnimateDiff)
Table of Contents
- What is LCM-LoRA?
- How does LCM-LoRA work?
- LCM-LoRA download pages
- Using LCM-LoRA in AUTOMATIC1111
- ComfyUI LCM-LoRA SDXL text-to-image workflow
- ComfyUI LCM-LoRA animateDiff prompt travel workflow
What is LCM-LoRA?
To answer this question, we have to start with the related Consistency Model (CM). CM is a new class of diffusion models trained to generate images in a single step. It was proposed by Yang Song and coworkers in the article Consistency Models.
The Latent Consistency Model (LCM) applies the same idea in latent diffusion models, such as Stable Diffusion, where the image denoising happens in the latent space.
Normally, you would need to train a new LCM for each custom checkpoint model, making it inconvenient to use. LCM-LoRA is an LoRA model trained with Stable Diffusion base models (v1.5 and SDXL) using the consistency method. It can be used with ANY custom checkpoint model to speed up the image generation to as few as four steps.
How does LCM-LoRA work?
To understand how LCM-LoRA works, you will first need to first understand the consistency model and the related efforts to speed up diffusion models.
A consistency model is a diffusion model trained to produce an AI image in a single step. It is a more efficient student model trained with a teacher model, such as the SDXL model. The student model is trained to produce the same image as the teacher model but in a single step. In other words, the consistency model is a faster version of the teacher model.
You can also train a consistency model directly from scratch without using a teacher model. In the future, you may see a new LCM models without a standard counterpart.
The idea behind the consistency model is to find a mapping between the final AI image and any denoising step. For example, if a diffusion model is trained to produce an AI image in 50 steps, a consistency model maps the intermediate noisy images at steps 0, 1, 2, 3… to the final step 50.
It is called a consistency model because the training takes advantage of the output of the mapping being consistent: It is always mapped to the final image in a single step. In other words, the mapping function’s outputs are always the same, no matter how noisy the image is.
In practice, the image quality of a single-step generation is not good. So people usually do a few steps instead.
The consistency model is a distillation method: It extracts and rearranges information from an existing (teacher) model to make it more efficient.
Latent consistency model (LCM)
The Latent consistency model (LCM) is the consistency model with latent diffusion, such as in Stable Diffusion. It was studied by Simian Luo and coworkers in the article Latent Consistency Models: Synthesizing High-Resolution Images with Few-Step Inference. The original consistency model is in the pixel space and the LCM is in the latent space. This is the only difference.
Now, we are finally in the position to introduce LCM-LoRA! Instead of training a checkpoint model, you train a LoRA for an LCM. LoRA is a small model file designed to modify a checkpoint model. It’s like a small patch.
The benefit of using LoRA is:
- Portability: an LCM-LoRA can be applied to ANY Stable Diffusion checkpoint models. LCM-LoRA for Stable Diffusion v1.5 and SDXL models are available. Essentially, you speed up a model when you apply the LoRA.
- Faster training: LoRA has a smaller number of weights to train. So it is faster and less demanding to train one.
Sampling method for LCM-LoRA
The LCM model is trained to do 1-step inference. In other words, the model will try to produce the final AI image in one step. But the quality is not as good as we hoped.
So here’s the sampling method for LCM:
- Denoise the latent image.
- Add back some noise (according to the noise schedule)
- Repeat steps 1 and 2 until reaching the last sampling step.
LCM-LoRA download pages
Here are the Huggingface links to the LCM-LoRA weights.
Using LCM-LoRA in AUTOMATIC1111
AUTOMATIC1111 does not have official support for LCM-LoRA yet. But you can use the LCM-LoRA speed up in a limited way.
Stable Diffusion v1.5 models
First, download the LCM-LoRA for SD 1.5 and put it to the LoRA folder stable-diffusion-webui > models > Lora. Rename it to lcm_lora_sd15.safetensors.
Select a Stable Diffuions v1.5 model, e.g. the DreamShaper model.
Use the LoRA directive in the prompt:
a very cool car <lora:lcm_lora_sd15:1>
You need to use a low CFG scale: 1 – 2
Sampling steps: 4
For comparison, these images are without using the LCM-LoRA using 4 steps.
Stable Diffusion XL
As of Nov 24, 2023, native support of LCM-LoRA in AUTOMATIC1111 is lacking. You can use the method above, but the results are not as good as the v1.5 models.
Adding the LCM sampler with AnimateDiff extension
The SDXL model doesn’t work well because we should have used the LCM sampling method. Before the LCM sampler is added, you can install the AnimateDiff extension. Update it if you have it already. It adds the LCM sampler to the list of available sampling methods.
Download the LCM LoRA for SDXL. Put it in stable-diffusion-webui > models> Lora. Rename it to lcm_lora_sdxl.safetensors.
To generate SDXL images using the LCM sampler:
- Checkpoint model: sd_xl_base_1.0
a very cool car <lora:lcm_lora_sdxl:1>
- Sampling method: LCM
- Size: 1024 x 1024
- CFG Scale: 1 to 2
- Sampling steps: 4
ComfyUI LCM-LoRA SDXL text-to-image workflow
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Step 1: Load the workflow
Download the ComfyUI workflow JSON file, then drag and drop it to ComfyUI to load the workflow.
Step 2: Load a SDXL model
In the Load Checkpoint node, select an SDXL model in the dropdown menu. It can be the SDXL base or any custom SDXL model.
Step 3: Download and load the LoRA
Download the LCM-LoRA for SDXL models here.
Rename the file to
lcm_lora_sdxl.safetensors. Put it in the folder ComfyUI > models > loras. (Put it in A1111’s LoRA folder if your ComfyUI shares model files with A1111)
Refresh the ComfyUI page.
Select the LCM-LoRA in the load LoRA node.
Step 4: Generate images
Review the prompt, the negative prompt, and the image size. Press Queue Prompt to generate an image. It should appear in no time because this workflow only uses 5 sampling steps!
You can use the same workflow with Stable Diffusion v1.5 custom models. You need to use a v1.5 model and v1.5 LCM-LoRA. Don’t forget to change the image size to 768 x 512 pixels!
ComfyUI LCM-LoRA animateDiff prompt travel workflow
What comfyUI workflows can use some speed up? Of course it’s making videos! So here you go: A ComfyUI AnimateDiff prompt travel workflow sped up by LCM-LoRA!
Step 1: Load the workflow
Download the workflow image file. Drag and drop the workflow image file to ComfyUI to load it.
Step 2: Select a checkpoint model
Download the checkpoint model DreamShaper 8. Put the safetensors file in the folder ComfyUI > models > checkpoints.
Refresh the browser tab.
Find the node Load Checkpoint. Click the ckpt_name dropdown menu and select the dreamshaper_8 model.
Step 3: Select a VAE
Download the ema-560000 VAE. Put the file in the folder ComfyUI > models > vae.
Refresh the browser page.
In the Load VAE node, select the file you just downloaded.
Step 4: Select the LCM-LoRA
Download the SD v1.5 LCM-LoRA. Rename it to lcm_lora_sd15.safetensors.
Put it in ComfyUI > models > loras.
Select lcm_lora_sd15.safetensors in the Load LoRA node.
Step 5: Select the AnimateDiff motion module
Download the AnimateDiff v1.5 v2 motion model. Put it in the folder ComfyUI > custom_nodes > ComfyUI-AnimateDiff-Evolved > models.
Refresh the browser page.
In the AnimateDiff Loader node, Select mm_sd_v15_v2.ckpt in the model_name dropdown menu.
Step 6: Download the negative embedding
This workflow uses the BadDream negative embedding in the negative prompt. It is a negative embedding trained for the Dream Shaper model.
Download the BadDream embedding. Put the file in ComfyUI > models > embeddings.
Step 7: Generate the video
Click Queue Prompt to start generating a video.
The progress bar will appear at the KSampler node. When it is done, you will see the video appearing in the Video Combine node.
This is what you should get:
Consistency Models – Yang Song and coworkers (2023) – This paper describes the Consistency Model for diffusion models.
Latent Consistency Models: Synthesizing High-Resolution Images with Few-Step Inference – Simian Luo and coworkers (2023) – Applying the Consistency Model to latent diffusion models.
LCM-LoRA: A Universal Stable-Diffusion Acceleration Module – Simian Luo and coworkers (2023) – Training a LoRA for LCM.